The locations of the ESA ground stations have been arranged in such a manner on the Earth’s surface that data reception as well as commanding of the spacecraft can be guaranteed to be constant or with minimal interruption.
The past decade has seen increasing public concern about the Earth, its environment and mankind´s impact upon it. Global threats such as climate warming, stratospheric ozone depletion, tropospheric pollution, reduction in Arctic sea ice extent and more recent regional events such as the very intense 1997-1998 El Nino, the fires in S.E. Asia and the floods in Middle Europe, have left the public more concerned about the need to understand, monitor; and predict the evolution and changes of the Earth´s environment.
Patria had a considerable role in building the ozone-monitoring instrument GOMOS for the ENVISAT satellite. Patria’s Space Electronics section developed and manufactured a central part of the instrument, namely it’s science data electronics (SDE) unit.
With a 30 year leadership in electro-optical missile target seeker technology, Kongsberg Defence & Aerospace (KDA) was well prepared to develop and deliver an important electro-optical subsystem of the MIPAS instrument (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding).
As a member of the European Space Agency, ESA, the Norwegian Space Centre started potential participant activities in the ENVISAT-programme in 1991. On behalf of Norway the ENVISAT declaration was signed in 1992. The Norwegian Space Centre has worked with the ENVISAT programme for more than ten years, and Norway has through the Norwegian Space Centre paid approx. 200 MNOK for the participation in the ENVISAT programme since the start.
Space-based maritime monitoring and surveillance has been a focus area for the Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (FFI) for over a decade. Throughout the ERS and RADARSAT-1 era, FFI has performed applied research that helped establish today’s operational services for radar satellite-based oil spill and fisheries monitoring in Norway.
Microwaves, not sensitive to cloud cover or sun illumination, are important for remote sensing at Nordic latitudes. The Arctic ice cover and the boreal forests are extensive areas important for the living conditions and sensitive to climate changes at these latitudes. ENVISAT offers new possibilities to detect and follow possible changes e.g. due to the greenhouse effect.
Ocean wind and wave measurements from satellites combined with numeral global wave and atmospheric models are dramatically changing our way of obtaining ocean wave information both for operational and climatological purposes.
The marine remote sensing group at Stockholm University is part of the MERIS-ATSR validation and calibration team (MAVT). The objective is to deliver sea-truthing data for the cal/val activities for MERIS derived from an optical station in the open Baltic Sea.
GOMOS will measure ozone and trace gases in the atmosphere by detecting the absorption of starlight in UV, visible and infrared wavelengths.